For students

For students

For students

             – Think if a number.

              – Ready.

              – Multiply it by 2!

              – Ready.

              – Add 4!

              – Ready.

              – Now divide the result by 2.

              – Ready.

              – Now subtract the number you thought of from the one you got.

              – Mmm, from which one that I got?

              – How many numbers did you “get” as a result that you are asking me “from which one”?

              – Well, you told me to divide the previous result by 2. When I divided it by 2, I got two things. Now I do not know from which one of them you want me to subtract the number I thought of.


This wondrous, but not unusual dialogue, takes place between a mathematician-philosopher and a third grader. Here is the philosophical idea the child had in mind. It is assumed that when we divide by 2 using the arithmetic division we not only get parts, but equal parts of the divisible. There are also two such parts. It is possible for the child to miss the arithmetic meaning in which they are equal and think they are just two. It is no wonder then that the child is in a state of reasonably and openly asking “From which one?”. The wise mathematical response obliges us to acknowledge what exactly has the child managed to understand, so that they can progress even through their misunderstanding.


The approach and methods from “Philosophy With Children” are able to help and guide children by establishing a free and autonomous attitude, by gaining confidence, and by making achievements in the field of mathematics. The leading idea is that mathematical achievements are not learned in a mandatory, necessary, or formal way. Progressing in mathematics is an expression of creative thinking and free investigation. Therefore, taking into account the children’s own experience and interests, we should allow them to be equal citizens and worthy members of the community of mathematicians.


The following skills and attitudes are developed:
  • an attitude for investigating, converting, and calculating quantities and quantitative relations;
  • an attitude reflecting on and following procedures;
  • skills for getting and sharing results;
  • logical skills;
  • comparison, equalizing, and identification skills;
  • skills for assessing, judging, and achieving truth;
  • skills for transforming pointing and displaying into proving.

I’m thinking about the “Iliad”. It’s interesting, but I find it difficult to understand some things. I don’t approve that they started a whole war all because of Elena. They should have asked her first, whether she wants to be with Menelaus or with Paris. Ask her how she wants to live, before anything else. Although I know that something like that could not have happened at that time, women did not have rights like that.

Dimana, 9th grade


I’m wondering how words came to be and how we are able to speak at all. Sometimes I really want to say something and because I cannot find the right words to express it, I start singing or crying. And I don’t know why, but when I sing or cry – I feel better after that.

Krasi, 5th grade


What’s wrong with the sentence “Outside is raining.” in which the subject is “outside”? Isn’t it actually true – what “is raining” is the “outside”.

Pavel, 6th grade


In gaining knowledge about norms, rules, genres, styles and periods, children often develop a relationship to language and literature as confusing instruments and an established heritage. The philosophical investigation into language helps with revealing a horizon towards it and a dialogue between understandings and ideas, and in general – an environment for human relations. Children receive support to develop and display their own understandings, ideas, and attitudes in an authentic and autonomous way; to learn and enjoy the richness of language and literature.


The approach and methods from “Philosophy With Children” are able to help and guide children by establishing a free attitude, gaining confidence, and making achievements in the field of language and literature. The leading idea is that language and literature competences are not gained through mandatory and necessary approach, but are rather expressions of free communication and creative thinking.


The following skills and attitudes are developed:
  • giving and defending one’s arguments;
  • developing an author’s ideas through participation in discussions’;
  • creating and sharing topics, participating in a dialogue;
  • communicative skills – clarification, persuasion, openness to others’ opinions, reevaluation of one’s views, etc.;
  • creative skills – linking different contexts, arranging and harmonizing meanings, developing criteria, etc.;
  • reasoning skills – induction, deduction, analogy, etc.;
  • research skills;
  • free attitude towards different approaches, styles, genres, contexts;

actions leading to creative achievements.